Jeff Green had 27 points and Kris Humphries scored 18 as the Celtics lost for the sixth time in seven games.
"We kind of got it going in the third (quarter)," Humphries said. "(It) kind of took our wind out of the sails when that 3 didn't count. (I) kind of wish they'd review it right away."
Rondo's shot was followed by two free throws and a reverse layup by George that put Indiana ahead 94-93. Then the reversal changed the score to 94-90 with 2:38 remaining.
Sullinger's two free throws made it 94-92 before George's layup restored the Pacers' four-point lead. Boston cut that to 96-94 on two free throws by Brandon Bass with 1:31 remaining, but George followed with a 3-pointer, making it 99-94.
Indiana increased the lead to 102-94 on two free throws by Stephenson and one by George before Green finished the scoring with a three-point play.
The Celtics scored nine of the last 11 points of the third quarter and took a 78-76 lead at the buzzer when Humphries dunked after rebounding a missed shot by Sullinger.
Trailing 74-69, Humphries began the comeback with a 3-pointer on a layup and a free throw. Green and Humphries made jumpers, giving Boston a 76-74 lead with 3:28 left in the period. David West then tied the game with a foul-line jumper before Humphries' quarter-ending dunk.
Indiana used an eight-point run to take a 51-41 lead with three minutes left in the second quarter. Luis Scola started the surge with a 13-footer, Turner followed with two jumpers and Roy Hibbert hit two free throws.
"Evan Turner gave us a big lift throughout the whole game," Vogel said, "but, in particular, down the stretch."
The Pacers led 55-45 before Chris Johnson's 3-pointer cut the lead to 55-48 at halftime. The Celtics had a chance to draw closer, but Hibbert blocked Rondo's shot with 29 seconds remaining.