The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s plant-inspection agency concluded that the greatest risk from the new seeds developed by Dow AgroSciences was increased use of 2,4-D, which could hasten the evolution of weeds resistant to it.
But, the agency said, resistance could develop anyway because 2,4-D is the third most-used weed-killer in the nation.
Freese and other advocates also raised concerns about possible health risks from increased use of 2,4-D and the chemical’s tendency to drift beyond the area where it is sprayed, threatening neighboring crops and wild plants.
Dow AgroSciences has attempted to address that by developing a new version of 2,4-D and new equipment to use with it, company spokesman Garry Hamlin said.
The seeds and new 2,4-D have been approved in Canada but not yet sold there. The company has targeted their release in the U.S. for 2015, pending approval by various federal agencies. In anticipation of that, it has received import approval from seven nations and has applications pending in about six others to allow farmers who use the seeds sold under the Enlist brand to export their crops.
Some nations, particularly in Europe, have been resistant to genetically engineered crops, and consumer concerns have created a market for organic and other foods made without genetically modified ingredients. Minneapolis-based General Mills announced Thursday that it had switched the sugar and cornstarch in original Cheerios to make that product GMO-free.
For now, Dow AgroSciences’ seeds can only be used in tightly controlled trials.
The Center for Food Safety and the environmental group Earthjustice threatened legal action if restrictions are the seeds are lifted.
The public has 45 days to comment on the USDA report published Friday as part of the deregulation process. The Environmental Protection Agency is conducting a separate review on the impact of expanded use of 2,4-D, although it previously found the herbicide safe.